Atheism in contemporary Theology

Alasdair MacIntyre, 'The debate about God: Victorian relevance and contemporary irrelevance'
Pascal, however, in the dialogue of fragment 343 (Brunschvicg 233) of the Pensées, confronts an interlocutor who not only does not believe but is "so constituted that he cannot believe." Pascal, unlike Aquinas or John Locke, is able to find no arguments in the character of the universe to address to this man. All he can confront him with is a choice, the choice elaborated in his doctrine of the wager. Pascal's notion that theistic belief is something to be chosen is quite new in the history of theism.

'Atheism and morals'
Almost all the great skeptics and atheists of the modern Western world have been morally conservative, often intensely so, in their lives as well as in their teachings. To Freud and Marx, for example, who took many of the traditional virtues for granted, the unorthodox moral behavior and attitudes of many Marxists and Freudians would have been highly distasteful.

Alasdair MacIntyre and Paul Ricoeur, the Religious significance of Atheism (Columbia University: NY 1969)

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